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COMPANHIA DE MOÇAMBIQUE

A Companhia de Moçambique foi uma companhia majestática (de ou próprio de majestade) da colônia portuguesa de Moçambique que tinha a concessão das terras que abrangem as atuais províncias de Manica e Sofala.

Esta empresa foi fundada em fevereiro de 1891, com um capital social de cerca de 5 milhões de dólares provenientes de financiadores da Alemanha, Reino Unido e África do Sul.

A concessão tinha o prazo de 50 anos, durante os quais a empresa podia, não apenas explorar os recursos e a mão-de-obra ali existentes (através da cobrança de impostos), mas também subconcessionar partes do território. O Estado Português receberia 7,5% dos lucros da Companhia.

A Companhia de Moçambique compreendeu o Território de Manica e Sofala, oferecendo (através de propagandas ainda em 1928) uma das regiões africanas mais férteis para a cultura de milho e outros cereais, tabaco, açúcar, algodão, sizal, acácia, frutas, entre outros, com grandes facilidades aos colonos...

Rico em ouro, prata, cobre e outros minerais, a Companhia também oferecia regulamento mineiro prodigo em facilidades... Ainda, propagava a caça de variadíssima espécie, considerando o território ideal para excursões cinegéticas (arte de caça), o paraiso dos caçadores...

A Companhia de Moçambique teve a sua sede na Beira, onde controlava a administração pública e os correios, inclusive tendo criado um banco privado, o Banco da Beira que emitia moeda com a denominação de libra.

Beira, a capital do território de Manica e Sofala, porto natural de trânsito para à Rodésia, oferecia porto moderno com direitos muito moderados, rapidez nas cargas e descargas...

Sede: Largo da Biblioteca, 10 – Lisboa. Comitê de Londres: Thames House, Queen Street Place, London. Comitê de Paris: 17, Boulevard Hausman – Paris. Para informações dirigir-se à Secretaria Geral do Governo do Território da Companhia de Moçambique, Caixa Postal 2, Beira – África Oriental Portuguesa.

Fonte (parte dessa história) – http://companhiademocambique.blogspot.com

Durante a Monarquia, um dos seus mais notáveis Governadores foi Manuel Rafael Gorjão Henriques (1898-1900), a quem a população da Beira pediu, em setembro de 1899, “um aumento dos seus impostos”, como relata o Diário de Moçambique de 06/05/1965.

Em 18/07/1942, o território de Manica e Sofala passou para administração direta do governo colonial e a Companhia de Moçambique, agora com a denominação SARL, continuou a operar nos setores agro-industrial e comercial.

Em 20/10/1961, a Companhia de Moçambique converteu-se no Grupo Entreposto Comercial de Moçambique que, a 06/09/1972 se transformou em holding, com a participação de capitais de várias sociedades, a Entreposto – Gestão e Participações (SGPS), SA.


Primeiramente, selos remarcados foram emitidos pela Cia. de Moçambique durante 1 ano (entre 1892 a 1893). Depois, selos foram emitidos pela Companhia de Moçambique (Colônia Portuguesa) entre 1895 até 1941...

O primeiro selo postal foi emitido em 1892, com valor facial de 5 réis (preto), remarcado com a sobrecarga “COMPa. DE MOÇAMBIQUE”, em um selo da Província de Moçambique datado de 1886 (abaixo, lado direito da tela).

O primeiro selo postal impresso com o nome da Companhia de Moçambique foi emitido em 1895 (Scott: 10, SG: 33), com valor facial de 2½ réis (amarelo) – a série de 15 selos é conhecida por “Elefantes” (lado esquerdo).


1935

O primeiro selo comemorativo da Cia. de Moçambique foi emitido em 1935 (Scott: 164, SG: 260, Yvert: 177), com valor facial de 1 escudo (azul e preto), ele marca a inauguração da nova ponte sobre o rio Zambeze. Picotagem: 12. Nota: A imagem deste selo foi repetida na emissão seguinte, Motivos Locais, com novo valor: 5 escudos.


1937

1937 – Série de 19 valores: “Motivos Locais”. Com desenhos de J. Webb e impressão a talho-doce por Waterlow & Sons, em Londres. Papel pontilhado em losangos e picotagem 12½ de linha. Impresso em folhas de 100 selos. Afinsa: 172/190. Yvert: 178/196. Scott: 175/193. Michel: 201/219. SG: 286/304.

1 centavo – girafa (Giraffe)
5 centavos – casas (Thatched Huts)
10 centavos – barco (Dhow)
15 centavos – Fortaleza de São Caetano, Sófala (St Caetano Fortress)
20 centavos – zebra (Zebra)
30 centavos – cobra (Rock Python)
40 centavos – rinoceronte-negro (Black Rhinoceros)
45 centavos – leão (Lion)
50 centavos – crocodilo (Crocodile)
60 centavos – leopardo (Leopard)
70 centavos – mulher nativa (Woman)
80 centavos – hipopótamo (Hippopotami)
85 centavos – caravela (Vasco da Gama's flagship)
1 escudo – nativo em canoa (Canoe)
1,40 escudo e quarenta centavos – palmeiras (Coconut Palms)
2 escudos – antílope (Greater Kudu)
5 escudos – Ponte sobre o rio Zambeze (Zambezi Railroad Bridge)
10 escudos – Porta de Sena (Sena Gate)
20 escudos – Brasão com elefantes (Company Arms)

Ampliado, o primeiro selo postal da série, com valor facial de 1 centavo; ao lado a série completa. Observação: O desenho deste selo aparece na capa do livro As lágrimas da girafa...

Descrição: 1937 – Motivos Locais (Indigenous Designs), para o selo de 1 centavo girafa (1 Cent Giraffe). Desenho original feito por “J. Webb” para a Waterlow & Sons. MB e DES. Exemplar único. Valor base: € 150. Imagem do 21º Leilão (24/11/2007) do Clube Filatélico de Portugal.

Note: I don't have the pieces in my collection “PENCIL DRAWING” (above) and “PHOTO NEGATIVE” (beneath)... These images have been showed in my site GIRAFAMANIA only for knowing. I pick them up on a site auction from Portugal, took place in 2007, and I think they are from (www.fpf-portugal.com) or (www.cfportugal.com).

19/08/1937 – Série completa em envelope registrado da Beira (capital da Província de Sofala) para Londres, Grã-Bretanha. Valor: $ 40.

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The images following (11), except two, are from the collection of David C. Underwood, kindly granted by him to be showed in this site.

Mozambique Company – 1937 – 1c Giraffe

1) Hand Painted Essay (Ex. John Sussex)
Pencil Notation: “Green Wrong – Yellow Green” and Initials: “DC”

2) Hand Painted Essay (Ex. John Sussex)

3) Duty Die Matrix #6088 (Ex. John Sussex) and 4) Frame Duty Die #6120 (Ex. John Sussex)

5) Vignette Die Proof (Ex. John Sussex)

6) Hand Painted Essay (Ex. John Sussex)

7) Frame Plate Proof

Prova de cor sem impressão central, com furo de segurança e sem picotagem. Bloco com 18 selos sem picotagem, SEM CENTRO, sem charneira e goma original. Afinsa nº 172. Nota: recebi carta registrada dos Correios de Portugal, com valor declarado, enviado em 04/04 por João Maçãs, da Filatelia Joaquim A. S. Maçãs – Lisboa, Portugal. Valor base: $ 110.

8) Plate Proof

Prova de cor com impressão central, com furo de segurança e sem picotagem. Bloco com 15 selos não denteados, COM CENTRO, sem charneira e goma original. Afinsa nº 172. Valor base: € 100.

9) Sample Book Proof “S.T. 1785” and 10) Colour Trial

11) 1937 1c Giraffe “SPECIMEN”

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Abaixo, matéria copiada da página:
The Mozambique Company: an introduction for philatelists – www.filatelia.fi/articles/mozambique.html

THIS IS PART OF THE PHILATELIC EXPERTS WEB SITE – www.filatelia.fi/experts
INCLUDING THE STAMP FORGERY GUIDE – www.filatelia.fi/forglinks

COMPANHIA DE MOÇAMBIQUE and África Oriental Portuguesa

Background: After difficult talks with Britain regarding the Mozambican border, Portugal finally ratified the clauses of the 1884 Congress of Berlin on 11 Jan. 1891. Among other things Portugal committed herself to build a railway from Beira to Rhodesia, who had been pressing heavily to gain access to the sea.

The Companhia de Moçambiqe SARL, formed in 1888 by Paiva de Andrade, administered by concession the central part, i.e. Manica and Sofála, of Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) from 1891 until 1941*, when its 50 years (prolonged from 25 years in 1897) charter terminated. In 1939 the population was 370 000 and the area 155 000 sq. km. In 1893 the Mozambique Co's territory was enlarged south of the river Save (dotted line on the map below). That area was attached to Gaza and Inhambane in the 1940s.

The company had exclusive rights to develop the economy of its territory, which, of course, politically and legally continued to belong to Portugal. A 1928 advert. The concession gave the company special trading privileges and even the authority to collect taxes and duties (revenue stamps were issued too), but infrastructure was to be constructed (including that railway!), public services maintained and a fee paid to the Portuguese government**. The important Beira–Salisbury railway was opened in 1899 and the line for Nyasaland in 1922.

The organisation of the postal service was part of the rights and obligations of the Mozambique Company, and between 1892 and 1941* it issued postage stamps (some 280 different). Most of the stamps from 1918 on were recess printed in London and are colourful and exotic, and thus popular with collectors. They are not expensive. The sale of stamps (frequently cancelled to order) certainly was a welcome income for the company. From 1942 on it continued as an ordinary non-chartered company and became in 1961 a subsidiary of the Portuguese Entreposto SGPS group. Strictly speaking the present day Companhia de Moçambiqe may be a new legal entity.

There were other similar chartered commercial companies (Port. companhias majestáticas) that issued stamps: the East India Company, the British North Borneo Company, the Imperial British East Africa Company, the Italian Benadir Company, and, also in Mozambique, the Nyassa Company***. The big British South Africa Company (chartered in 1889) operated Southern and Northern Rhodesia, and the Mozambique Company was actually chartered in order to help satisfying BSAC's contractual claims on neighbouring Portuguese East Africa, because Portugal's economy was weak at this time. Paradoxically most of the share capital of the Mozambique Company was furnished by private British interests. Below is a picture of a bearer share certificate issued in 1895.

The certificate (for 25 shares; printed in London) does not state where it was issued, but the legal domicile of the Companhia de Moçambiqe was Lisbon, not Beira (the capital of its territory). In the right hand margin there is a notation that this particular certificate has been exchanged in 1901 for three new ones by the Compagnie du Mozambique's Paris registrars. This share is from 1948 (or somewhat later). The Company also issued bank notes of its own (previously through its Banco da Beira). Some of the notes are denominated in Pounds Sterling, due to the Rhodesian influence on the economy.

1893–1919 (31 Dec.) each district of Port. East Africa except Gaza used its own stamps. In 1913 the old Zambezia was split into Quelimane and Tete. The Gaza district was detached in Jan. 1918 from Inhambane (which was created in 1895). 1895–1907 the Gaza area had had a special military status.

The Quionga (German Kionga) triangle was occupied by the Portuguese on 11 April 1916 (acknowledged by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919), but it is not certain that it was annexed to the Nyassa Co's area. What stamps were in use there after the 1916 provisionals?

Chinde, British Concession. In 1891 the Portuguese govt. granted the British govt. a concession (signed 1892, expanded to 10 hectares 1898, cancelled 1925) to an island with 400 metres of frontage on the Chinde River/Channel/Mouth (discovered 1889) and close to Chinde town, as a free trade area for transits to and from Nyasaland (BCA), who maintained a post office there. You may thus find Nyasaland stamps postmarked Chinde. Before the railways River Zambezi (via Chinde) was the main route to central Africa.

* The Company was chartered on 11/02/1891. A decree of 08/08/1892 authorized it to issue postage stamps. In accordance with a July 1941 decree the administration of Manica and Sofála reverted to the colonial authorities in January 1942 and Mozambican stamps came on sale at the same time [Simões Ferreira catalogue]. Stamps of the Mozambique Company in the hands of the public were valid up to 18/07/1942 inclusive [Portu-Info 14[1]:5, July 1978].

** Exploiting a colony was not that lucrative as people tend to think today, not even for the mightiest of the mighty: “The British South Africa Co. would not be sorry to give up [into effect in 1923] the burden of governing the two Rhodesias. In the 25 years of its life, it had not so far paid a penny of dividend to its shareholders. Instead of making a large profit every year, as it had hoped, it had lost money.” [W. E. Ward. A History of Africa, Book three. London 1968. P. 94.] The Br. East Africa Co. only could hold out from 1887 to 1895. The share capital of the Mozambique Co. had to be halved.

When the BSAC's charter ended in 1923 the company retained interests in mining, railways, real estate and agriculture. In 1964, it was forced to hand over its last mineral rights to Zambia, and in 1965, BSAC merged with the Central Mining & Investment Corp. Ltd and the Consolidated Mines Selection Co. Ltd, to form the mining and industrial company Charter Consolidated Ltd (the biggest shareholder of which was Anglo American plc). The design of the share certificate has been the same since 1890.

*** The majority of the shares of the Companhia do Nyassa (Companhia do Niassa), which administered the north (190 000 sq. km, pop. 824 000 in 1960) under a 35 years charter (granted in 1894, ended on 27/10/1929), was in 1913–14 acquired from e.g. Portuguese interests by a group of German banks, with the intention of attaching the territory to German East Africa. However, in 1917 those shares were confiscated and sold to British investors. This company was obliged to build a railway from Porto Amélia to Lake Nyasa, but it never did.

Other short monographs: Borgå Ångfartygs Ab, Järnvägs Ab Fredrikshamn, Some Near East Islands.
Copyright © 28 Dec. 2005 by G. Kock
Contact information – www.filatelia.fi/forglinks
Address of page – www.filatelia.fi/articles/mozambique.html


Contatos:

MAJ David C. Underwood, Jr. (david.c.underwood@gmail.com)
1004 Gorgas Circle – Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-2620

11/10/2009 – Dear Sérgio, I saw your page, and thought you might like to have the attachment. I am working to put together a complete exhibit of the 1937 Mozambique Company 1c Giraffe. I notice you have the Pencil Drawing and Negative images in your collection. I know you do not sell, but if there is ever anything you find that I could buy and trade you for those items, please let me know. You can also reach me through Mike Deverell or Alan MacGregor if you need to chat. Thanks, Dave Underwood.

12/10/09: Found a typo on the slides, here is the corrected. Take Care, Dave.

12/10/09: Hallo David! Thank you for your interest and images. I’m sorry. What you want I don’t have. I have the other pieces, but I could not change because there are unique. Otherwise, I would like to ask you if I may use those images that you send me in my site... They are wonderful! And do you sell something? Best regards.

13/10/09: Typo on Giraffes. Sérgio, Not selling. But you are welcome to use the images. Do you own the pencil drawing? Thanks, Dave.

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Última atualização: 15/05/2013.
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